Molecules of the cell

12TH PHYSICS

Molecules of the cell
The cell and its organelles are made of organic Chemicals such as proteins carbohydrates nucleic acid and fats these are aptly biomolecules in organic molecules such as water and Minerals are also present in a Cell.
Water water with unique physical and chemical properties has made life possible on Earth it is a major constituent of Protoplasm it is a medium in which all the metabolic reactions occur
It is a universal solvent in which is most substances dissolved sparingly or completely
It is responsible for turgidity of cell
Elements necessary for life
Elements
Hydrogen carbon oxygen nitrogen calcium potassium sodium magnesium Phosphorus sulphur iron Boron Silicon manganese copper zinc Cobalt molybdenum Iodine
Functions
Required for organic compounds of the cell age major constituents calcium in plant cell wall carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen age organic compounds
Act as major cations Sodium Potassium and NICL and most physiological processes
As cofactor of enzymes participate in most of the biochemical reactions of a cell a p c u m o z and b
Android in energy transfer reactions Phosphorus in ATP
Pigment chlorophyll in plants have magnesium in the centre of tetrapyrrole ring
Biomolecules
Carbohydrate
Structure
Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen simple 6 carbon sugar glucose is called a monosaccharide to molecules or units join together to form disaccharide sukrose more than 10 units of monosaccharides zone in Asian to form a polysaccharide example starch and cellulose
Functions
Most abundant organic substance present in nature which occurs in the form of cellulose in plant cell wall and both plants and animals it is used as a source of energy sugar an important Storage for in plants is starch and in animals it is glycogen present in nucleic acids as 5 carbon sugar in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA
Amino acids
Basic amino acid structure shows that the central carbon atom is attached with an amino group NH2 and carboxylic acid group c h 1 hydrogen and one side group are there are 20 different side crops which have 20 different amino acids
Functions
Plants have the ability to utilise inorganic nitrogen and synthesise amino acid nnn Evil principal source of amino acid is provided by the plants or animals that is consumes in its diet pulses are rich in protein
Proteins
Composed of carbon hydrogen Oxygen and nitrogen amino acids joined together by peptide bonds to form protein molecules 20 different amino acids make numerous simple and complex proteins based on the complexity of structure the proteins can have primary secondary tertiary and quaternary structure when proteins exist with other molecules they are known as conjugated proteins example glycoproteins life protein and chromoprotein
Functions
Structurally proteins form integral part of the membrane functionally in the form of enzymes they play a vital role in metabolic reactions synthesis of DNA is regulated by proteins enzymes proteins are so important that nucleic acid directly regulate Protein synthesis
Nucleic acid
They are of two types deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and drivers nuclic acid RNA they are long chain Polymers composed of units called nucleotides experience adenine and guanine and perimeter as thymine cytosine and uracil nucleotide has pentose sugar nitrogen base and phosphate group DNA has won oxygen less in its sugar molecule
Functions
DNA is the main genetic material for almost all organisms except certain viruses
RNA molecules are involved in information transfer and Protein synthesis and RNA exsaij genetic material in some viruses example tmb tobacco mosaic virus

L i p i d s
Composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen amount of oxygen is very less they are synthesized from fatty acids and glycerol simple lipids are called pills rides fats are solid at room temperature those that remains liquid at room temperature are called oils fats can be saturated or unsaturated
Function
Due to low oxygen content and higher number of carbon hydrogen bonds they store higher amount of energy and release more energy during the oxidation a molecule of fat can held twice as much energy as from carbohydrate phospholipids are important components of cell membranes
Vitamins
Vitamins are organic compounds required in the diet of animals for their healthy growth vitamins are classified according to their solubility into two groups water soluble example Vitamin B and ascorbic acid and fat soluble vitamins a d e k plants have the ability to synthesise vitamins from carbon dioxide NH3 and H2S
Vitamins from plants are essential nutrients in animals died as animals cannot synthesise such compounds their deficiency causes various diseases and animal like deficiency of vitamin D causes Berry berry and that of Vitamin C causes Scurvy vitamin A present in the car carotene pigment of carrot vitamin D can be produced by men with the help of Sunlight vitamin K is produced by bacteria in the human intestine
Alkaloids
Alkaloids are complex organic compounds made of carbon hydrogen Oxygen and nitrogen
Alkaloids in plants are produced from amino acids the active principle of drugs from medicinal plants are generally alkaloids example queen in from the same Corner ephedrine from and more pin from paper species
These are fat soluble Leopard compound synthesized from cholesterol they are produced by the reproductive organs like ovaries testis and placenta to buy adrenal glands they include testosterone oestrogen and cortisol
Most of the students act as life saving drugs and some other act as hormones which are effective in performing specific functions in specific organs of animal body

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