biomolecules handritten notes

11TH BIOLOGY ALL NEET POSTS

                                                     BIOMOLECULES

BIOMOLECULES NOTES FOR NEET AND IIT-JEE  PREPARATION ASPIRANTS

  • There is a wide diversity in living organisms in our biosphere.

                              showing biomoleules

figure : showing a large biomolecules

 


ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS for biomolecules :

a]LIVING MATTER ANALYSIS for biomolecules  –

If we perform such an analysis on a plant tissue, animal tissue or a microbial paste, we obtain a list of elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and several others and their respective content per unit mass of a living tissueS.

b]NONLIVING MATTER ANALYSIS for biomolecules  –

If the same analysis is performed on a piece of earth’s crust as an example of non-living matter, we obtain a similar list.

c] RESULT OF ANALYSIS for biomolecules

All the elements present in a sample of earth’s crust are also present in a sample of living tissue. However, a closer examination reveals that the relative abundance of carbon and hydrogen with respect to other elements is higher in any living organism than in earth’s crust .

 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS for biomolecules :

  1. living tissue (a vegetable or a piece of liver, etc.) and grind it in trichloroacetic acid (Cl 3 CCOOH) using a mortar and a pestle.
  2. We obtain a thick slurry. If we were to strain this through a cheesecloth or cotton we would obtain two fractions.
  3. One is called the filtrate or more technically, the acid-soluble pool, and the second, the retentate or the acid-insoluble fraction.
  4. Scientists have found thousands of organic compounds in the acid-soluble pool.
  5. one extracts the compounds, then subjects the extract to various separation techniques till one has separated a compound from all other compounds. In other words, one isolates and purifies a compound.
  6. Analytical techniques, when applied to the compound give us an idea of the molecular formula and the probable structure of the compound.
  7. . living organisms have also got inorganic elements and compounds in them.

 

All the carbon compounds that we get from living tissues can be called ‘biomolecules’.

 

DESTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENT for biomolecules :

 1. One weighs a small amount of a living tissue (say a leaf or liver and this is called wet weight) and dry it.

  1. All the water, evaporates.
  2. The remaining material gives dry weight.

4.Now if the tissue is fully burnt, all the carbon compounds are oxidised to gaseous form (CO2 , water vapour) and are removed ,remaining is called ‘ash’.

  1. This ash contains inorganic elements (like calcium, magnesium etc). Inorganic compounds like sulphate, phosphate, etc., are also seen in the acid-soluble fraction.

> elemental analysis gives elemental composition of living tissues in the form of hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, carbon etc.

      A Comparison of Elements Present in Non-living and Living Matter

                                                                                   %WEIGHT OF

ELEMENT
EARTH’S CRUST
HUMAN BODY
HYDROGEN
0.14 0.5
CARBON
0.03 18.5
OXYGEN
46.6 65.0
NITROGEN
VERY LITTLE 3.3
SULPHUR
0.03 0.3
SODIUM
2.8 0.2
CALCIUM
3.6 1.5
MAGNESIUM
2.1 0.1
SILICON
27.7 NEGLIGIBLE

 

             A List of Representative Inorganic Constituents of Living Tissues.
COMPONENT
FORMULA
SODIUM Na+
POTESIUM K+
CALCIUM Ca++
MAGNESIUM Mg+2
WATER

 

H2O
COMPOUNDS NaCl , CaCO3 , PHOSPHATE ,SULPHATE

 

biomoleules figure
biomolecules

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